Umay’dan Kayra Han’a: Türk Mitolojisinde Tanrılar, Tanrıçalar ve Yaratılış Hikayeleri

Gods, Goddesses and Creation Stories in Turkish Mythology

We can define the concept of mythology as all the myths about myths, explaining the creation of the universe and the reason for beliefs in a culture. When it comes to mythology, although mythological stories from Greek or Ancient Egypt come to mind first, Turkish mythology also has a very interesting and mysterious past. When we go deeper into Turkish mythology, it is possible to see that these legends take their source from Turkish epics and heroes. To make a short introduction; While there is still nothingness in the universe, two beings put an end to this nothingness; Erlik and Ulgen. The chief god is Kayra Han. We have brought together for you those who are curious about Turkish mythology, which is blended with the belief in the Sky God. What did the gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology represent? Let’s listen to their stories together.


Gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology

The most notable of the goddesses you should know about Turkish mythology is Umay. She is known as the goddess of women. Umay, who is also the owner of the tree of life, scatters abundance on the earth. The goddess, who has an eye-catching beauty with her silver-colored hair, is responsible for protecting nature. In some sources, it is also referred to as mother nature or Mother Umay. One of the most important duties of the goddess is to protect newly born women and newborn babies from evil spirits. She is ready for the duty of protection in moments of danger with the bow and arrow she carries with her. It is known that people who do not have children dedicate a sacrifice to Umay.

In the pictures on the ceramic products found by archaeologists in the Altays, Umay is depicted as three horned. In some archaeological finds discovered around Central Asia, the description is different. In the descriptions, the main motif of Umay is described as a white-haired and white-dressed person. On the other hand, it is also stated that she has the appearance of a winged woman dressed as a bird. Altai Turks, on the other hand, describe Umay as a silver-haired, moon-faced woman descending from the sky.


Gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology

Ülgen, one of the gods in Turkish mythology, is the god of goodness. It is rumored that Ülgen sat on a golden throne on the 16th floor of the sky. He is considered the most important god after the sky god Kayra Han. Moreover, it is stated that he is stronger than the opposing god Erlik. Ülgen, who has long hair, always carries a shield with him. According to the Epic of Creation, he is known to appear to shamans as a goose flying over the waters. It is told that he wears blue as a hero of the sky and wears a traditional capak or cap. People first learned to make fire from him.

Lightning and lightning are the weapons of Ulgen. He carries lightning in his bow. Any place where Ülgen sends lightning is considered sacred. He has nine daughters and seven sons. God Ulgen creates three fish and assigns them to carry the world. He is in control of fertility, fertility and weather. It is not easy to reach Ülgen. It is rumored that even the strongest of shamans can only reach the pole star.

Kayra Han

Kayra Han, the most well-known god of Turkish mythology, is the chief god and creator. The belief that he created all the gods is dominant. While Kayra Han is a sky god in some sources, it is stated that she is a creator created by a sky god in some sources. He lives on the 17th floor of the sky. It existed before the universe was created. Kayra Han, an old and wise god, manages the operation of the universe. He has a word and judgment about all beginnings and endings in the universe. Kayra Han, the most powerful god of mythology, spends winters on earth and summers in the sky. He looks out for the good in determining the fate of the universe. Since it is the god who punishes Erlik, he is known for his closeness to the good. It is believed that he created the nine branched ‘Uluğ Kayın’ that connects the earth and the sky. It is rumored that a human ancestor was born from each branch of this tree of life and these ancestors formed nine tribes. A specific depiction of Kayra Han is not common, as she is the chief creator.

Gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology

Erlik, the ruler of the dark realms, is considered the cruel god of Turkish mythology. Erlik; It symbolizes pessimism, greed, lies, greed and all kinds of evil. Because of his creation, he chooses the bad and takes it as his duty to do bad deeds. He rules evil spirits. His resemblance to the devil is often mentioned because of his desire to have all the rights and his rebellion against the creator. Erlik, the lord of the seven-storey underground, is depicted with horns, hairy, sharp teeth and an ugly appearance. According to the legend, Erlik Han; In the creation of the world, Kayra Han did a great disservice and was severely punished. Therefore, it sits on the lowest floor of the underground realm.

White Ana

She is known as the goddess who initiates the cycle of life. In many legends, her name is also mentioned as the goddess of the sea. It is rumored that she lived in endless waters when there was nothing in the universe yet. She is known as the feminine spirit that gives Ülgen the power to create and encourages her by disguising herself as a deer before creation. It is stated that after she inspired She ülgen, she returned to the waters and lived in the depths of the water forever. The whole body of the White Mother was created from light. Other parts of his body are depicted with hair-shaped horns and a blue fish tail.


Gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology

Mergen, the god of mind, is one of the sons of the creator and represents reason and intelligence. He is one of the most well-known gods of the sky. He lives on the seventh floor, which is considered sacred in the sky. Mergen, which is at the forefront with its wisdom, also symbolizes science and philosophy. It is believed that it conveys important information and gives advice to people. Carrying a bow with a wolf’s head at both ends, Mergen wears armbands with the same motif. It is said that by riding a tawny horse, he provides communication between the gods in this way.


Karlık is also known as the god of smoke, as he is a spirit that emerged with smoke in Turkish mythology. It has the same function as water and they are known for their proximity to each other. Karlık monitors people’s lives and notifies Ülgen when extraordinary situations occur. He is responsible for conveying the spirits of the victims to Ülgen. The smoke that comes out when the victims are burned symbolizes the arrival of Karlık.

with water

Gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology

Suyla, a protective spirit, is known as the god of fate or destiny. She performs her services for Ülgen. It is believed to have been created from parts of water, moon and sun. Suyla, who is in charge of protecting people, also lives among them. Suyla, whose eyesight works perfectly, is likened to an eagle in this respect. He knows about the future of people. Suyla is thought to help people and protect them from evil spirits.


One of the powerful gods of Turkish mythology, Kızagan is the god of war. Being believed to be one of the sons of the Creator Ülgen, Kızagan is a very imposing and powerful god. He leads armies, wars and protects warriors. It symbolizes power and strength. He is red in color and rides a red camel with a red bridle. It is rumored that the rainbow was the scepter of Kızagan and protected the warriors with it. It is believed that the victories won with very few soldiers are thanks to Kızagan. He lives on the 9th floor of the sky.

Yayık Han

Gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology

Yayık Han, the god of rivers, lives at the confluence of seventeen rivers. He rules the winds and the waters. Sitting on the third floor of the sky, Yayık Han is known to help shamans and is believed to protect people. Therefore, when the spring time comes, porridge is made from the first milk of the animals and poured into the rivers. This porridge is dedicated to the river god Yayık Han.

Aizit and his daughters

Known as the Aphrodite of Turkish and Altai mythology, Ayizit is famous as the most striking goddess of Turkish mythology. Aizit is a goddess of beauty. She is shown as the symbol of love and beauty. The reflection of the goddess is a swan. This is exactly why swans are considered sacred and should not be touched. Aizit can disguise himself as a silver-haired mare and descend from the sky to earth in this way. The tail and manes of the mare are in the form of wings. Ayizit, who wanders in the forests, has a white cap.

Aizit; protects children and baby animals and instills love in people. Guards with silver whips live at the gate of his palace. These watchmen are responsible for not letting bad people in. Ayizit’s daughters can also disguise themselves as swans, just like Ayizit. These girls have magical, white tulle. When they wear these feathers, they turn into charming swans. On the other hand, the daughters of Aızıt symbolize the white crane. According to the Yakuts, the Golden Book is in the hands of Ayizit, and the fate of all humanity is recorded in this book.

Kubey Hatun

Gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology

We continue our list of gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology with Kübey Hatun! According to the Altai Turks, the tree is the place where the great mother lives. It is also depicted as the place where she feeds and milks the heroes. Kübey Hatun is the goddess of birth and is in the tree. The water of life flows from the roots of this tree. According to epics, a mythological tree depiction is as follows. “A middle-aged woman with a keen eye, half naked to her waist, like tree roots underneath, scatters milk from her swollen breasts.” In myths, the tree is often told with the theme of light. In shamanic prayers, the tree is referred to as a blessed beech with golden leaves. Kübey Hatun, the goddess of birth, also lives in the depths of this beech tree.

Eagle Mother

Turkish mythology is full of interesting legends. According to the beliefs of the Yakut Turks, the Shaman people are brought to earth by the eagle mother. In Er-Töştük epic, it is depicted as an eagle tooth. Eagle is expressed as the symbol of the Sun according to the Yakuts. Yakuts adopt the belief that their mother descended from an eagle. Because of this belief, the eagle is also called the “sun bird”. Mother Eagle symbolizes rebirth, eternal life, immortality and sunrise. The eagle figure symbolizes fire, warmth, the harvest season and the sun in Chinese mythology.


Gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology

Ötügen, known as the earth goddess in Turkish mythology, is responsible for protecting the state and sovereignty. According to studies, it is stated that the word Ötügen derives from the word “utagan”, which is a shaman name. Ötügen is a goddess tasked with protecting animals and everything related to the earth. On the other hand, the connection between the earth goddess and birth and production is considered universal.

Main Room

We complete our list of gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology with Od Ana. Od Ana is depicted as the goddess of fire by the Yakut Turks. Depicted as a white-haired woman, the goddess wears a green or red silk robe. According to a shamanic prayer, Od Ana is described as follows: “You play with your hair waving like a young girl in dark nights! You ride on a young red mare, waving red silk fabrics”. According to the Yakuts, the hearth spirit has feminine energy. The very center of the house is the “heart of the house” and the hearth should be here. Three-legged and sacred cauldrons belonging to the Huns were discovered in Central Asia. According to the Yakuts, the three daughters of Ülgen lit the first furnace. According to the rumor, the fire gods are seven brothers in total.

If you like our content about gods and goddesses in Turkish mythology; You may also like our content of 33 Strange Creatures Harmful to Minds in Turkish Mythology.

Source: one 2nd

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